23Sep2010
[You have 2 compounds listed here - you just need to do one. JCB]
Looking for properties for- 2 listed, deciding between the 2- most likely doing the second one
3'-deoxythymidine

Molecular weight- 226.229
Melting point- 155.5 C
LD50- 113 mg/kg
Short term Exposure limit- 3mg/m3
Long Term Exposure Limit- 1mg/m3
http://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=DDT

Molecular Weight- 226.23
Melting Point- 155-156 C
http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/ProductDetail.do?lang=en&N4=D1138|SIGMA&N5=SEARCH_CONCAT_PNO|BRAND_KEY&F=SPEC


30Sep2010- Removed other compound, not enough info

dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

MP- 108-109 [specify units and convert to common if necessary JCB]
BP- 260
Density 1.56 g/cm^3
Flash point - 156 C
Toxicity
ORAL-RAT LD50 87 mg kg-1
SKIN-RAT LD50 1931 mg kg-1
ORAL-HUMAN LDLO 500 mg kg-1 (though far lower figures are also quoted)
SUBQUTANIOUS-RAT LD50 1500 mg kg-1
ORAL-MOUSE LD50 135 mg kg-1
ORAL-RABBIT LD50 250 mg kg-1
http://msds.chem.ox.ac.uk/DD/DDT.html -Primary

MW- 354.5 [must use a measured property JCB]
BP- 230 F-
MP 227 F-
Vapor Pressure- 0.0000006 mmHg
Flash Point- 161-172 F-
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0174.html

Species
Reference
Route
LD50
(mg/kg)

Adjusted LD
Derived value
Rabbit
Rat
Rat
Mouse
G. pig
AAPCO 1966
Kenaga 1979
Lehman 1951
Spencer 1953
Truhaut et al. 1974
oral
oral
oral
oral
oral
250
87
250
135
150





1,750 mg/m3
609 mg/m3
1,750 mg/m3
945 mg/m3
1,050 mg/m3
175 mg/m3
61 mg/m3
175 mg/m3
95 mg/m3
105 mg/m3
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/idlh/50293.html

MW- 354.51
MP 108.5-109 C
VP- 0.025 mPA @ 25C
  • World Health Organization.
  • USA Environmental Protection Agency.
  • Belstein.
  • Oregon University.
http://www.the-piedpiper.co.uk/th13%28l%29.htm - secondary

The acute oral LD50 (rat) is 113 to 800 milligrams per kilogram of body weight or mg/kg
The acute dermal LD50 (rat) is 2,500 to 3,000 mg/kg (7)
http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/ddttech.pdf

MP- 108.5- 109
VP- 2.53* 10^-5 Pa at 20C
http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chemicals/ddt.pdf

LD50s range from 113 to 800 mg/kg in rats- Royal Society of Chemistry. 1991 (as updated). The Agrochemicals Handbook, Royal Society of Chemistry Information Services, Cambridge, UK.
with reported dermal LD50s of 2,500-3,000 mg/kg in female rats- Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)/US Public Health Service, Toxicological Profile for 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, 4, 4'-DDD (Update). 1994. ATSDR. Atlanta, GA.
MW- 351.54 -Royal Society of Chemistry. 1991 (as updated)
MP 108.5-109 C Royal Society of Chemistry. 1991 (as updated)
VP- 0.025 mPa @ 25C - Royal Society of Chemistry. 1991 (as updated)
http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/carbaryl-dicrotophos/ddt-ext.html

07Oct2010

Rat Oral 113 mg/kg
http://informahealthcare.com/doi/pdf/10.3109/15563656908990914

Water Partition Coefficient- LOG(P)= 6.15
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6WDM-4F1JX9N-CF-1&_cdi=6770&_user=95578&_pii=0147651380900159&_origin=search&_coverDate=06%2F30%2F1980&_sk=999959997&view=c&wchp=dGLzVzb-zSkzS&md5=e5d232444821afd4a50aa3b0cb1ba863&ie=/sdarticle.pdf -Primary [use DOI JCB]

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WDM-4F1JX9N-CF&_user=95578&_coverDate=06%2F30%2F1980&_alid=1508528034&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_item&_cdi=6770&_sort=r&_st=13&_docanchor=&view=c&_ct=234&_acct=C000007158&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=95578&md5=cfa56716ed1d5729a25850ccce144a2c&searchtype=a (is this what you mean?)


Oct 21, 2010
Flash Point
Source
Converted

MP
Source
Converted
1
165 C
165 C

1
108-109 C
108.5 C

2
162-171 C
162-171 C

2
227 F
108.3 C

3
161.6 C
161.6 C

4
108.5-109 C
108.75 C

11
203.9 C
203.9 C

6
108.5-109 C
108.75 C

13
72.2-77.2 C
72.2-77.2 C

7
108.5-109 C
108.75 C


MP
Source
Converted

BP
Source
Converted

Oral Rat
Source
Converted
1
108-109 C
108.5 C

1
260 C
260 C

1
87 mg/kg
87 mg/kg
2
227 F
108.3 C

2
230 F
110 C

5
113 mg/kg
113 mg/kg
4
108.5-109 C
108.75 C

11
367.95 C
367.95 C

7
113 mg/kg
113 mg/kg
6
108.5-109 C
108.75 C

12
260 C
260 C

9
87 mg/kg
87 mg/kg
7
108.5-109 C
108.75 C

14
260 C
260 C

10
250 mg/Kg
250 mg/Kg

VP
Source
Converted
2
6*10^-6 mmHg
0.0008 Pa
4
0.025 mPA @ 25C
0.000025 Pa
6
2.53* 10^-5 Pa at 20C
0.0000253 Pa
7
2.53* 10^-5 Pa at 20C
0.0000253 Pa
11
1.60E-07 mm Hg at 20 deg C
0.0000213 Pa

1
http://msds.chem.ox.ac.uk/DD/DDT.html
2
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0174.html
3
http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/ProductDetail.do?D7=0&N5=SEARCH_CONCAT_PNO|BRAND_KEY&N4=386340|ALDRICH&N25=0&QS=ON&F=SPEC
4
http://www.the-piedpiper.co.uk/th13%28l%29.htm
5
http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/ddttech.pdf
6
http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chemicals/ddt.pdf
7
Royal Society of Chemistry. 1991 (as updated). The Agrochemicals Handbook, Royal Society of Chemistry Information Services, Cambridge, UK. -Secondary- http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/carbaryl-dicrotophos/ddt-ext.html
8
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)/US Public Health Service, Toxicological Profile for 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, 4, 4'-DDD (Update). 1994. ATSDR. Atlanta, GA -Secondary- http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/profiles/extoxnet/carbaryl-dicrotophos/ddt-ext.html
9
Kenaga EE [1979]. Acute and chronic toxicity of 75 pesticides to various animal species. Down to Earth 35:25-31. -Secondary- http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/idlh/50293.html
10
Lehman AJ [1951]. Chemicals in food: a report to the Association of Food and Drug Officials on current developments. Part II. Pesticides. Section III. Subacute and chronic toxicity. Q Bulletin Assoc Food Drug Off U.S. 15:122-133. -Secondary- http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/idlh/50293.html
11
http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.2928.html
12
http://www.hbcpnetbase.com//articles/03_01_91.pdf#xml=http://www.hbcpnetbase.com/search/pdfHits.asp?id=03_01_91&DocId=117386&hitCount=1&hits=362160+
13
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp35-c4.pdf
14
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

5. List at least 4 reasons why it benefits a chemist to publish their work in peer reviewed journals.

1. It helps increase the scientific quality of their article. The more people who read it, the less errors that slip through into the published article. Peer reviewers can help remove inaccurate data, and help point out missing references. Also, it encourages scientist to hold the experimetal techniques to a higher standard, because they know the article is going to be read by people who understand the experiment before it reaches publication.

2. It gives the article validation. It puts a seal of approval which shows that person who did the experiment followed legitimate protocols which met certain standards. It allows people not in that area of expertise to put more trust in the findings within the article.

3. It helps filter out articles based on an improper experiment. It can help the scientist realize that their data might not be true, but actually based on a side reaction, or a contamination in a solution. It also saves someone from publishing a duplicate paper, one that has already been written. This saves the scientist and the publisher from defamation and embarrassment. Publishing papers like this can cost a scientists their employment, funding, or awards.

4.Peer Review also makes a paper easier to understand. Having someone else read the article allows a new perspective that can point out areas where the author made a jump that seemed logical to them who study that area, but that jump might not be apparent to people without that expertise.

http://www.publishingresearch.net/documents/PRCsummary4Warefinal.pdf
http://www.ehow.com/facts_4899766_benefits-peer-review.html

-mim26

11/4/2010

Article Entry
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/ed069p362 -New Link
[Full marks JCB]

A Chemists Tale

Journal of Chemical Education- Volume 69- Issue 5- Page 362

  • Many inventions come out of wartime needs, such as radar and synthetic rubber.
  • DDT was invented during WWII to help fight the spread of insect borne diseases
  • DDT is arguably one of the best pesticides, but it is very toxic to certain species
  • Pyrethrum had be used previously, it was derived from the chrysanthemum, but it only knocked out insects not kill them.
  • Pyrethrum supplies were cut off by war lines
  • DDT could be manufactured, lasted months if not washed away, and killed, so it was more permanent pest control
  • DDT was discovered in Germany in 1874, but its properties were not well tested
  • DDT was rediscovered by a Swiss company who recognized its pest control properties
  • DDT was widely use by the military in WWII
  • Frank Mayo, who discovered and originally manufactured DDT, never graduated college, but founded three separate chemical companies
  • 1944 Frank Mayo got interested in DDT while looking for bleaching compounds
  • DDT was a military secret compound produced in small quantities
  • DDT was already being used for US troops in South Asia
  • Mayo found an article stating who developed the compound, but not what it was or how to make it
  • Mayo figured out what journal it was in, but it was hard to obtain a copy
  • Mayo's Daughter found the Journal at her college
  • Mayo stealthly retrieved the Journal at night
  • The article was in German, but he was able to read the compound name
  • The compounds to make DDT were listed but hard to obtain
  • He obtained a drug that contained one of the compounds from his local drug store
  • He made the compound and it worked beautifully, all the bugs died
  • Mayo created his first plant out of spare parts, but it worked
  • After the war there was still a demand for DDT, but Mayo returned to pursuing other projects