1. Introduction. Oxytocin, OXT Humans, and mammals in general are social creatures, relying on others for reproduction, security, and economic, and govt. Trust and love fuel all social interactions but are very abstract ideas or emotions. How do we explain these ideas scientifically?
7. The word “oxytocin” was coined from the Greek words (ω k ν ξ, τ o k ox ξ) meaning “quick birth” after its uterine-contracting properties were discovered by Dale (Dale, 1906)
-How is most research done? And how is it related to humans? Source 7 most research don’t in animals, can be related to humans how?
-What social behaviors are measured? Attachement and trust, define and how this relates to love. found that helps to regulate social behavior, increases
2. describe the chemical makeup of oxytocin
3. describe the path oxytocin takes, how it is released and moved around body.

4. During what processes is oxytocin released the most?
-birth, post birth-lactation, sexual interactions
at birth mothers secrete oxytocin in high levels and child is exposed as well.
During lactation Lactation is a dynamic process, which involves the pulsatile release of oxytocin. milk contains comparatively high levels of hormones including oxytocin . influences the response of the young to the mother. (neuroendocrine perspective on social attachments and love)
Adrenal steroids, vasopressin, oxytocin and endogenous opioids are released during sexual behavior
5. What are the effects of oxytocin on animals/humans?
-trust..that does this mean?
-synthesized OXT is used to induce labor and help produce milk (8)
6. Difference between effects on men and women.
7. Alternative threories of the effects of oxytocin
8. Conclusion

Chemical Make-up of Oxytocin:
Oxytocin is a hormone found in mammals that functions mainly as a neurotransmitter in the brain. It is a small nonapeptide, made up of a nine amino acids (Cys-Tyr-Ile-Gln-Asn-Cys-Pro-Leu-GlyNH2) [7]. Oxytocin forms a six amino acid ring with a three amino acid long tail made of the amino acids (Pro-Leu-Gly) [3]. A sulfur bridge Connects the two cysteine amino acids to form the ring shape[7]. In 1953 Vincent du Vigneaud determined the amino acid sequenec of Oxytocin and later synthesized the polypeptide [6]. The ability to synthesize Oxytocin has made the processes of studying its effects on the social behavior of mammals easier. Oxytocin belongs to the family of hormones released by the neurohypophysis, the posterior part of the pituitary glands. Oxytocin, also refered to as alpha-hypophamine, has a molecular formula of C43H66N12O12S2 and a molecular weight of 1007.19 g/mol [9]. Oxytocin is located on chromosome number 20 in humans, and number 2 in mice [8].

Where Oxytocin is stored, and released: *release of Oxytocin can be conditioned [4] add later
Oxytocin is found throughout the brain. It is typically produced in the magnocellular neureons within the supraoptic nucleun (SON) and the paraventrical nucleas (PVN) of the hypothalamus. It then will be released and transported, via carrier proteins, from the SON and the PVN to the posterior pituitary gland, or the neurohypophysis [1,3,7,9]. Oxytocin remains in the hypophysis until it is released, in pulses, into the bloodstream. Oxytocin released by the hypophysis is used to regulate lactation through contractions of the myoepithelial tissue in the breast, and regulate birth by triggering necessary muscle contractions [3]. Oxytocin can also be found in the parvocellular neurons on the PVN, and is released from there to parts of the Central Nervous System [3,4]. Upon release Oxytocin will go to parts of the Central Nervous System including the straitum, the raphe nuclei, the LC, the amygdala, the vagal motor, the spinal cord, and the hypothalamus [4]. The release of Oxytocin in the posterior pituitary glands may act independent of any release of Oxytocin in the Central Nervous System [3]. It has, however, been noted that the release from the pituitary glands and the Central Nervous system can happen together in a pattern [3]. The release of Oxytocin within the SON and PVN increases during birth, lactation, touch, and surrounding birth. Oxytocin can also be found in cerebrospinal fluid and in nonneural tissue.

[use proper DOI to link to article JCB]

Oxytocin and Sexual Behavior Summary

1. This research looks at the chemicals released in animals that control sexual behavior
2. This research focuses on oxytocin and its effects on sexual behavior in animals. Since little evidence has been obtained in human behavior the research is based mostly on the effects on animals and their sexual behavior.
3. The response of human beings have been previously broken into 4 stages; excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. Rise in sexual tension, enhanced sexual tension, physical release of sexual tension including muscular contractions, and the return to non stimulated state.
4. Men and woman have the same physical stanges of sexual arousal.
5. “coital reflex” was measured by stimulation of the spine and is the same in men and women.
6. Describes orgasm neurologically, to electrical reactions slowing and muscles pulse.
7. Neural effects must be seen for an orgasm to happen, so any damage to the nervous system and prevent orgasm.
8. Two systems are responsible for orgasm, genitopelvic tissues and nervous system. And a third compound in responsible for coordinating these systems.
9. Sex steroids help to enhance sexual behavior in humans, as well as nonsteroidal hormones and neurotransmitters. This paper focuses on oxytocin.
10. Oxytocin is 3 amino acid rings with a tail made of three amino acids and has a similar counter part ,arginine vasopressin, that is released in the body in similar ways though it may cause different effects. Made in PVN and SON. Hard to pass oxytocin into the brain but if manually put into central nervous system it can cause behavioral changes.
11. Oxytocin and arginine pasopressin have very similar genetic codes and ofter are released together, or in similar patterns, in body.
12. Oxytocin mainly found in PYN and PON and is released into circulation in pulses from these locations.
13. Oxytocin receptors are found in tissue throughout the body but receptor location and concentrations are specific to species. Differences in recptors relate to differences in social behavior.
14. Fuctions of oxytocin, and oxytocin receptors, depend of steroid hormones but they are species specific.
15. Oxytocin may explain reactions in hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal axis.
16. Oxytocin is released in rats when breast,vagus nerve, and genitals stimulated. Release can be conditioned and released by other means then physical stimulation.
17. Oxytocin can be released by other means than physical stimulation and depends on reactions of different hormones and neurochemicals. Some will increase release of oxytocin and some will prevent release.
18. Oxytocin is released in intervals, about 9-12 seconds after stimulation which is probably the time it takes to get released and to the receptor.
19. PVN and SON will cluster and react in order to release oxytocin, they are normally isolated until stimulated and come together
20. When these come together social effects in virgin rats created a maternal or bonding effect among rats, and happened by sight not by physical stimulation.
21. Oxytocin has a great effect on smooth muscle tissue but in 1987 it was thought that though men and women have similar sexual behaviors there was no effect of oxytocin on men, only in women.
22. Oxytocin believed to have effect on sexual and social behavior in different animals.
23. There is a noticed increase of oxytocin during sexual arousal and especially during orgasm. Oxytocin may help to stimulate the movement of sperm.
24. Oxytocin can be released even if not physically stimiulated and may be effected by hormones and neurotransmitters.
25. Oxytocin may elevate male sexual performance, fewer pauses before ejaculation.
26. Oxytocin controls erections but too much will prevent erections.
27. Oxytocin helps to regulate ejaculation
28. Oxytocin can not easily go through the blood-brain barrier except in the nervous system. So the effects of oxytocin on sexual behavior due to oxytocin outside of the central nervous system
29. Oxytocin helps to regulate and pace sexual behaviors in men but may also inhibit erections in large doses.
30. oxytocin helps females to except male advances in animals.
31. oxytocin helps female animals to physcially prepare for sex..
32. oxytocin helps to lower sexual inhibitions

I will so my 5 properties on (alpha)D-Glucose.

Melting Point:
1) 146 Deg C MSDS (http://www.sciencestuff.com/msds/C1665.html)
2) α-D-glucose: 146 °C β-D-glucose: 150 °C (wikipedia.com)
3) 146 deg C (javascript:NewWindow('/web/portal/knovel_content?p_p_id=EXT_KNOVEL_CONTENT&p_p_action=1&p_p_state=normal&p_p_mode=view&p_p_col_id=column-1&p_p_col_count=1&_EXT_KNOVEL_CONTENT_struts_action=/ext/knovel_content/view&_EXT_KNOVEL_CONTENT_contentType=1&_EXT_KNOVEL_CONTENT_SetID=8332187&_
4) 146 deg C via beilstein
5) 149-152/153-156 Chemspider.com 71358 experimental properties
MP (exp database): < 25 deg C (chemspider 71358 predicted properties exp database
6) 146 deg C http://www.inchem.org/documents/icsc/icsc/eics0865.htm
7)146 dec C alpha, 150 deg beta Mutatrotation of Glucose http://users.ipfw.edu/tahmassd/CHM266/mutarotation-procedure-2006.doc.
8) 146 deg c CRC handbook http://www.hbcpnetbase.com/tables/default.asp
9) Tfus=fusion/melting point http://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/inchi/InChI%3D1S/C6H12O6/c7-1-3(9)5(11)6(12)4(10)2-8/h1%2C3-6%2C8-12H%2C2H2/t3-%2C4%2B%2C5%2B%2C6%2B/m0/s1
Kofler and Sitte, 1950
Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 3. K; With "hot stage"
Kofler and Sitte, 1950
Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 4. K; By "differntial thermal absorption"
Parks and Thomas, 1934
Uncertainty assigned by TRC = 2. K

146(°C) http://www.chemexper.com/


1) 1.54 g/cm3 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucose
2) 1.54 g/cm3 http://physics.nist.gov/cgi-bin/Star/compos.pl?matno=172
3) 1.56 g/cm3 http://www.inchem.org/documents/icsc/icsc/eics0865.htm
4) 1.732 g/cm^3 http://www.chemspider.com/RecordView.aspx?rid=7df21e49-6ef7-40a7-b5ed-cb741ee3e845 #71358
5) 1.562018 CRC handbook http://www.hbcpnetbase.com/tables/default.asp

Water Solubility:
1) 47.8 g glucose/100g sol'n @ 20 deg C http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/je700177nsolubility_pubs.png
2) 47% MSDS (http://www.sciencestuff.com/msds/C1665.html)
3) 91 g/100 ml (25 °C) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucose
4) 818 g/kg water @ 15 deg C 1200 g/kg water @ 30 deg c http://www.hbcpnetbase.com/tables/default.asp
5) 82 parts glucose/100 parts water @ 25 deg C beilstein #1724615
6) 1200 mg/mL at 30 oC http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB02379

Enthalpy of Formation:
1) −1271 kJ/mol http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucose
2) -1273.3 kJ/mol http://www.hbcpnetbase.com/tables/default.asp
3) -1271.1 kJ/mol (simple calculation by NIST; no Washburn corrections); ALS http://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=C492626&Units=SI&Mask=187F
4) -1274.5 kJ/mol Huffman and Fox, 1938
5) -1286.3 kJ/mol Clarke and Stegeman, 1939

refraction index
1.573 http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.96749.html

Gibbs Free Energy
1389. ± 17.
Cai and Cole, 2002
gas phase


I was thinking of doing my research on the effects of oxytocin during sex for both men and women
[good starting point - you may find that you need to expand a bit more - perhaps to all effects of oxytocin JCB