Keith DeNivo-log
I was wondering if I could do my research project on Dichloroacetic acid if not maybe at least its properties.
A few years ago it was in the news as a useful tool against cancer.

Dichloroacetic acid Properties:

Boiling Point

194 degrees Celsius
193.999 degrees Celsius predicted property from chemspider
193.999 °C at 760 mmHg
194 C


Melting point:
9-11 °C(lit.)
9 - 11 C
9-11 °C(lit.) sigmaaldrich

- 11
11 Degrees C

- 11°C

1.626 g/cm3
1.563 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.) sigmaaldrich
1.5724 g/mL at 13°C
1.563 at 20/4 oC
1.563 at 25 oC
1.563 g/cm3 (20 C)

1.563g/cm3 (20C)

Flash point:
75.552 °C
112 C
113 °C sigmaaldrich


Vapor Pressure:
0.19 mbar (19 Pa) at 20°C
0.19 mmHg ( 20 °C) sigmaaldrich
0.196 mmHg at 25°C (predicted property)
Pa at 20°C: 19
0.2 (25 C) mmHg

Refractive index:
n20/D 1.466(lit.) sigmaaldrich

- 1.4673

- 1.4673
1.4667 (19 C)

Soluble in water
Soluble in water, alcohol and ether
Solubility in water: soluble Solubility in other solvents: miscible with alcohol, ether and ethanol soluble in acetone


Assignment 2:
[Full Marks JCB]

  • Authors, Reviewers, Peer Reviewers
  • Introduction
  • The document states that its main purpose is to access the toxicology of dichloroacetic acid by dose response assessment summaries, the data of which will be integrated into their system.
  • Summarizes what oral reference dose(RFD) and inhalation reference concentration(RFC) is.
  • The Carcinogenic affects of the compound will also be studied. This includes the likelihood of the compound being a carcinogen and what concentration the user must be exposed to the compound.
  • They follow standard EPA guidelines for the assessment.
  • Certain databases were researched in order to obtain base information on the compound.
  • Physical Properties
  • It then lists the physical properties of dichloroacetic acid.
  • Toxicokinetics
  • DCA(dichloroacetic acid is found to almost completely absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract.
  • The distribution of the compound within a biological body identifying what percentage of the compound was found in which tissues.
  • The primary metabolic reaction of DCA to occur is oxidative dechlorination to form glyoxylate. Metabolism information of this compound is known in humans because it has been used to treat metabolic disorders.
  • Evidence of glyoxylate formation can be found in the urine.
  • Apparently GSTZ is identical to maleylacetoacetate isomerase (MAAI) both are found in the liver and various other tissues and catalyze dehalogenation.
  • GSTZ activity differs among ages and species.
  • There are various polymorphisms of GSTZ and they are found at different concentrations in differently aged adults. There is one variant that has a differently level of activity towards DCA.
  • Glyoxylate may be subjected to different metabolic pathways.
  • Picture of the metabolism of DCA
  • There is evidence of additional metabolic pathways for DCA such as the conversion of it to CO2. This was found by radio-labeled DCA.
  • An metabolic proposal in 1998 involves the DCA forming monochloricacetic acid which may involve the formation of free radicals. This was not investigated.
  • DCA may become incorporated into proteins.
  • DCA can inhibit its own metabolism.
  • Mice, rats, dogs, and humans were tested by giving an oral dose of 50mg/kg and their blood concentration of the compound at several points in time varied significantly.
  • After successive doses of DCA in humans the half life of the compound increased after a few days. This may be due to the inactivation of one or more of its enzymes.
  • GSTZ inhibition occurs in rodents after prolonged exposure of DCA.
  • One of the intermediates may inhibit GSTZ this process is irreversible.
  • The ability to metabolize DCA depends on age, dose, pretreatment and species.
  • There is evidence that in rats the CO2 derived DCA decreased if pre-dosing occurred but not in mice.
  • DCA was in drinking water for 8 week old mice and it showed that there metabolism of DCA decreased with time.
  • The carcinogenic affect of DCA does not appear to be involved in its glutathione-S-transferase-dependent biotransformation.
  • Carcinogenicity may be related to tyrosine metabolites that appear when GSTZ is inhibited rather than the DCA metabolites that accumulate.
  • The Toxic nature of the compound and the effects of it on metabolism is still uncertain.
  • Under certain conditions other pathways are favored.
  • There is evidence that GSTZ would react with maleylacetone rather than DCA under the presence of both compounds.
  • Maleacetone may accumulate if GSTZ is inhibited.
  • Without the enzyme mice have been found to die when exposed to a diet rich in protein, phenylalanine, or tyrosine.
  • Very little amount of DCA is excreted through feces.
  • An increase of DCA leads to an increase of DCA evidence in urine.
  • There is further evidence of DCA inhibiting its clearance when there is prior exposure to the compound or if it has been taken for a prolonged period of time.
  • DCA toxicity is unknown.
  • DCA has been used as a drug to treat: congenital lactic acidosis, familial hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes.
  • The most common side effects are sedation and tingling of the extremities.
  • Jump to conclusion:
  • DCA causes many adverse affects one of the most prominent being the reduction of glucose, pyruvate and lactate in the blood.
  • May cause an increase in liver size due to increased glycogen.
  • DCA decreases testicular size and sperm count. It also leads to abnormal soft tissue anomalies in females' offspring.
  • DCA exposure increased tumors in rats and mice in certain tissues, it is not known why this occurs. There is not enough evidence to make an assessment for humans.