Final topic: Applications of Guar galactomannan in food, paper, textile, and petroleum industries.


Assignment 2:

Guar Gum: A Miracle Therapy for Hypercholesterolemia, Hyperglycemia and Obesity

Masood Sadiq Butt; Naureen Shahzadi; Mian Kamran Sharif; Muhammad Nasir
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 1549-7852, Volume 47, Issue 4, 2007, Pages 389 – 396
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408390600846267 or PubMed link
[Full Marks JCB]

ABSTRACT
This paragraph emphasizes the need for finding solution for hypercholesterolemic and hyperglycemic diseases in human. Guar is a nutritious agent that has advantageous properties that can reduce and prevent high glucose concentration: viscous fiber as well as thickening agent. Those properties make guar lower cholesterol level. This paper mainly focuses on how guar can help prevent cardiovascular disease or diabetes.

INTRODUCTION
This introduction provides basic information of guar bean. It was planted mainly in India, Pakistan, some places in the United States, Australia, and Africa. It is used as food source in daily diet. In chemical structures : mannose backbone and galactose side chain. The main component that brings economic and nutritious advantages is endosperm that can hydrate fast without heating.

Every year, Unites States import over 91 million lbs of guar from India and Pakistan, countries that produce 60% amount of guar around the world in 2003.
The combination of wheat flour with cereal or legumes is proved to produce a nutrient product in local communities. That is why there are many researches around the world on the combination of wheat flour and guar for its advantageous behavior hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic agent in reducing diseases.

CHOLESTEROL AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
There are main two sources of cholesterol: from synthesis in liver and intake from daily diet. Cholesterol also divides into LDL and HDL types. LDL form has a negative effect on human health while HDL form has a good effect. LDLs has such low density that they concentrates on blood vessel that prevent bloodstream from traveling smoothly. HDL has high density so that it can pick up LDLs from blood stream and delivers them back to liver for breakdown and secretion from the body.

DIET DIVERSIFICATION: THE RIGHT APPROACH
Dietary fiber is the potential material for fighting disease in human health. There is two kinds of fiber: soluble and insoluble. Insoluble fiber helps increase feeling of fullness after the meal and prevent over intake of nutrition in a serving. Soluble fiber, like guar, in intestine can hydrate to increase amount of water in the stool, which can help decrease amount of cholesterol and glucose after meal.

This paragraph explains how dietary fiber help on decreasing cholesterol and glucose level. The appearance of fiber results in increasing secretion of bile acid into faces that lower absorption of dietary lipid and fatty acid synthesis in liver. It also suggests that an addition of 10g fiber intake daily can help reduce risk of disease by 17%.

GUAR GUM AND SERUM LIPID PROFILE
Guar gum contains 75% soluble fiber, 7.6% insoluble fiber, 2.16% crude protein, 0.78% fat, 0.54% ash, and 9.55% moisture content. Therefore, guar can be served as “functional foods” that can decrease risk of cardiovascular disease by lowering plasma cholesterol.

For each gram of soluble fiber intake, cholesterol can be reduced by 0.045mmol/l.

The effect of soluble fiber on hypercholesterolemia is proved by National-Cholesterol-Education-Program. Random people were supplemented with 20g/day of fiber for over 51 weeks. The result shows that fiber help people reduce their LDL cholesterol by substantial amount while HDL cholesterol level is still maintained the same. The experiment also is conducted on senior at average age of 65; they were received 10g/day of soluble fiber. After 12 weeks, their plasma cholesterol was reduced by 12%, triglyceride was reduced by 42%, and HDL cholesterol was increased by 6%.

This paragraph continues to give more experimental result from clinical trial. Guar gum can help to reduce serum total cholesterol by 10 to 15%, LDL cholesterol by 9.6%, and triglyceride by 42%. Other results are shown from 1981 to 2000.

In take of guar gum also help increase activity of antioxidant enzyme and immune function to reduce total serum cholesterol and triglyceride in human body. An experiment on type 1 diabetic patients shows that four weeks of consuming guar gum can decrease level of cholesterol by 21%.

Guar gum was compared with other fiber on their effect on lowering serum total cholesterol and lipid. The result shows that guar gum lower 10% of serum cholesterol afterward.

The 5% or 10% of guar gum diet then was compared to fiber-free diet; a large amount of plasma cholesterol was decreased after 21days experiment. The comparison of guar gum, xanthan gum, pre-gelatinized cornstarch, and cellulose was also conducted; the result shows that serum cholesterol was decreased to 1.43, 1.41, 1.54, 1.42 mmol/L respectively.

GUAR GUM AND GLYCEMIC INDEX
Guar gum can reduce glucose in blood after dinner and long-term period by increasing amount of insulin synthesis in the body. In an experiment 28 diabetics were treat with guar diet for three periods in three months. In the first period, they was treated with white flour bread, then with bread containing 29g of guar, and finally with wheat bran (33g). Their postprandial blood glucose level is reduced form from 12.0 ± 3.8 mmol/L to 9.7 ± 2.8 mmol/L.

There are several reasons that glucose can lower glucose level. The first reason is that viscous guar solution that containing meal resists to the mixing and contraction of stomach, which decreases the absorption of glucose in intestine. Another reason is that guar is more viscous than other gums at low pH or high pH, which contributes to decreasing in absorption of glucose in diet.

An experiment was performed on rat for 67 weeks to show that guar gum is more effective than cellulose or bran In rats, guar can decrease fasting blood glucose from 11.4 ± 3.7 mmol/L to 9.5 ± 3.9 mmol/L.

The suspension of Guar by-product (GBP) is also another cause that decreases glucose level.

GUAR GUM AND WEIGHT MANAGEMENT
Guar gum, as dietary fiber, can help people to manage weight loss, especially in obesity or diabetics. The fiber helps people have fullness feeling that decreases food intake per serving and increase the release of fat and nitrogen. Gel forming fibers are more effective than non-gel forming fiber in weight control.

Because gel-forming fiber hydrates immediately in intestine, more water was obtained in the diet. This hydration increased the feeling of fullness in the stomach, which decrease amount of calorie intake as well as glucose absorbed. In a study, guar was proved more effective than glucose and bran groups in managing weight.

Another reason of weight control due to guar gum is that guar hydrates to gel that slow down the breakdown of food in intestine that cause delay in absorption of nutrients.

A study of Wistar rats discover that 10% and 20% of guar gum in diet can increase 10% of small intestine length because the consuming of raw legume can increases the weight of pancreatic and small intestine relative to body-weight. Another study discovers that the increasing of small intestine is due to gel forming nature of guar gum, this gel form can restrain one from desiring for more food. Hence it helps to control obesity, too.

The effectiveness of guar gum on body weight control was proved on human beings. When guar gum was added to daily intake without changing people’s normal dietary habit, their body weight was considerably decreased.

GUAR GUM FORTIFICATION AS DIET THERAPY
In this paragraph, the author introduces a project to combine guar gum into India/Pakistan’s chapatti – the main food in this region. Hence, it would be easier for people in this area to control their cholesterol and glucose level. There is a project conducted by Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan to combine wheat flour with various legumes, such as lentil, chickpea, and guar gum at different compositions in preparing chapatti. The result shows that maximum dietary fiber was from sample containing 3% of guar gum.

More results show that chapatti containing 2-3% guar gum has higher quality (white and puffy) and also can be stored up to 60 days.

A experiment was performed on rat with those sample above for 4 weeks. The result shows that rat consumed sample containing guar gum (3%) has the most reducing weight.

Further experiments show that for serum cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride, the best composition was from sample containing guar gum 3%. While, for glucose, the best composition was from sample containing chickpea 5% and guar gum 1%.

It is concluded that there is 12–17% reduction in cholesterol and 10–14% decline in glucose by the addition of selected treatments.

CONCLUSION
The author concludes that soluble fiber is especially a need for daily diet to lower cholesterol and glucose level. The soluble fiber is emphasized over insoluble fiber because soluble one can form a gel that is more effective in reducing weight and glucose. A suggestion is emphasized that guar gum should be combined in wheat flour in process of chapatti - the main food of lo income inhabitant of Indo-Pakistan region to control threat of disease.












First assignment:


Acetophenone



external image ImagesHandler.ashx?id=7132&w=200&h=200

Boiling point:
202.00 to 203.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg thegoodscentscompany
201.7 C at 1atm Cameochemical database (picked)
198C-204C Chemicalland21
202C WolframAlpha
202C Sigma Aldrich (picked)
202C Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (image)(picked)
202.4C Britannica
202.6C Trade-key
202C Oxford MSDS
202.6C Scifinder( image) (Journal of Organic Chemistry) (picked)
200C Scifinder ( image) (Tetrahedron) (picked)

Melting point:
19C Oxford MSDS (picked)
19-20C Chemicalland21
19.5 C WolframAlpha (picked)
19-20 °C(lit.) Sigma Aldrich
20C PICS INCHEM
20.5C Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (image) (picked)
19.6C Chemcas
19.7C Cameochemical
20.2C Britannica
20.5C tjbaker
19.6C Scifiner (image) (Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry) (picked)
20C Scifinder (image) Journal of Membrane Science (picked)

Density:
1.03 Oxford MSDS (picked)
1.03 g/cm3 WolframAlpha
1.03 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.) Sigma Aldrich
1.028 g/cm³ Wikipedia
1.028120 g/cm³ Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (image) (picked)
0.993 g/cm3 Lookchem (picked)
1.02382 at 25C Scifinder (image) (Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry ) (picked)
1.02330 at 25C Scifinder (image) (Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data ) (picked)

Vapor pressure:
0.45 mm Hg at 20C Oxford MSDS
0.4499 mmHg at STP WolframAlpha
0.45 mmHg ( 25 °C) Sigma Aldrich (picked)
0.372 mm Hg at 25 °C USEPA (picked)
0.33 mm Hg at 20C Chemcas
0.4 mm Hg at 25C tjbaker(picked)
0.39700 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C thegoodscentscompany (picked)
0.299 mm/Hg @ 25.00 °C Lookchem (picked)

Flash point:
82C Oxford MSDS (picked)
77C Chemicalland21
82.22C WolframAlpha (picked)
76 °C Sigma Aldrich (picked)
77C Wikipedia
180F Cameochemical ~ 82.22C
81.67C thegoodscentscompany (picked)
80.9C Lookchem (picked)